As in norwegian, there are two kind of phrases in spanish:
  • Main phrases
  • Subordinate phrases 
Main phrases
Main phrases are complete phrases, that is, they do not depend on other elements.
For example "Jeg heter Per" ("Me llamo Per"). That kind of phrase is build using a simple pattern: Subject Verb Complents.

Yo leo un libro. (Jeg leser en bok.)
Tu comes patatas. (Du spiser poteter.)
Él escribe una carta. (Han skriver et brev.)
Nosotros tenemos un coche. (Vi har en bil.)
Vosotros vais al colegio. (Dere går til skole.)
Ellos beben agua. (De drikker vann.)

Those phrases were written after the norwegian model, where the subject must stay. In spanish this is not necessary due to the verb redundancy. If I say "leo un libro" everone will understand that "I" read a book. Take a look at the verb tables if you have any questions about what I'm speaking about.
That means that all the sentences in spanish and of course the sentences showed before can be written without subject. Sometimes the subject stays, but it is due to semantic reasons. Maybe you want to emphasize something.

As in other languages we can build negative sentences. The negative particle in spanish sentences is "no". Same examples:
Yo no se leer. (Jeg kan ikke lese.)
No te gustan las patatas. (Du liker ikke poteter.)
No encuentra las llaves. (Han finner ikke nøkkelene.)
No queremos jugar conmigo. (Vi vil ikke spile med deg.)
Vosotros no venis con nosotros. (Dere kommer ikke med oss.)
Ellos no encuentran su coche. (De finner ikke bilen deres.)

Those main sentences can be put together using conjunctions such as "y" (og) or "o" (eller). For exemple:
     Yo quiero jugar. (Jeg vil spile.)
  + Yo quiero comer. (Jeg vil spise.)
     Yo quiero jugar y comer (Je vil spile og spise.)

As told before, you don't need to write the subject, which means that the sentence "Quiero jugar y comer." is right, too. At least the sentences without subject are more common than the sentences with subject

Sub- phrases
Sub-phrases are the ones which complete a main sentence. Sub-sentences are connected to the main phrase with conjuctions like "porque" or "pero". For example:
Quiero comer ahora porque tengo hambre. (Jeg vil spise nå fordi jeg er sulten.)
Quiero comprar un coche, pero no tengo dinero. (Jeg vil kjøpe en bil, men jeg har ikke penger.)
Building a negative sub-phrase is done following the same rules showed with the main sentences. As we see in the last example, you can put the negation particle "no" in front of the sentence you want to negate.

Word order
It is very important to know where to put the words in the sentence. Spanish is a very flexible language in that sense. There are no rules such "place before time" which exist in the norwegian language.
The "normal" word order is "Subject Verb Complements". For exemple:
Yo como patatas - Jeg spiser poteter.
Tú juegas con la pelota en la calle - Du spiler med ballen i gata.
Él ve la televisión cuando anochece - Han ser på fjernsyn når det begynner å mørkne.

But in spanish you can change the word order to:
En la calle, tu juegas con la pelota - "I gata spiler du med ballen".
Cuando anochece, él ve la televisión - "Når det begynner å mørkne, han ser på fjernsyn".

You may now have one question: When to use those forms?
The answer is not easy. Both are grammatically right. It depends on you and what you want to enfasize. In the second exemples the time and place complements are more important than the subject. You know that he watches television, but the important thing is *when* does he watch it.